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Under the Ottoman rule (16th-18th centuries), the local Jews were prosperous financially and culturally, setting as a model of a successful community for other Jewish communities in the area.
Volos, too, got its share of Sephardim (Spanish Jews fleeing the Inquisition), though the Romaniote element (Jews of Greek origin) remained dominant up to our days.
With the liberation of Greece, October 1944, the Jews of Volos returned to their city, facing the plundering of their businesses and the destruction of their Synagogue.
Supported by local and external Jewish organizations, assistance was supplied to the sick and the needy.
The harmonious picture was interrupted with the starting of World War II.
136 members of the community were, nevertheless, caught by the Nazis and sent to death camps.This development was followed by the formation of several associations, including the 1910-formed Zionist Association, "Poalei Zion", "Ahavat Reim" (formed 1907), "Ozer Dalim" (1910) and "Agudath Ahim" (1920).In addition, the community set committees in charge of the functioning of its institutions: the 1870-established Synagogue, the cemetery which was erected in the late 19th century, and so on.Several more were killed in the course of military actions and hardships.Most young Jews joined the Greek underground, contributing much to the resistance efforts.
A local Jewish school, initiated by the local community and sponsored by the Alliance Israélite Universelle, started its operation in 1864.