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Forensic document dating cases

(03/11/15) CEW Research Index (05/24/15) Brave - Brief DRAFT Outline of Selected Numbers, Law, Research (11/18/13) Brave - 2013 IPICD Annual Conference Presentation Power Point (10/03/14) TASER Risk Management Power Point (pptx file - 10 megabytes) (02/24/13) International TASER Risk Management Canadian and International Power Point (pptx - 4 megabytes) (09/07/10) ECD Forensic Index (08/19/08) ECD Research Index and Conclusions (10/15/13) Council of Canadian Academies and Canadian Academy of Health Sciences. Ottawa (ON): The Expert Panel on the Medical and Physiological Impacts of conducted Energy Weapons – Full Report. Canadian Police Research Centre, Canadian Safety and Security Program, Government of Canada. Study of Deaths Following Electro Muscular Disruption. After reviewing the available evidence from this extensive case study, the author concludes that these conducted energy weapons are excluded as the cause of death in 182 of the 212 cases. When Snauer had reached the top of the fence, [Officer] Sether fired his [TASER ECD in probe mode]. 21-22 – “it seems that a strike from a solid baton can be at least equally forceful, if not more so, than a Taser . Additionally, the post-struggle conduct of the officers did not violate Michael’s rights. Officer notes that fleeing from an officer in a motor vehicle is a felony. Electronic Control Weapons in Georgia: Review and Recommendations, Adopted by the Georgia Association of Chiefs of Police Executive Board. (01/05) Town of Madison (WI) Police Department Policy Manual.National Institute of Justice (05/24/11) Alpert, G., Police Use of Force, Tasers and Other Less-Lethal Weapon. Electronic Control Device Exposure- A Review of Morbidity and Mortality. (09/02/08) TRS-D Ventricular Fibrillation (VF) - Detail (06/10/08) TRS-D Metabolic Acidosis - Detail (04/24/08) TRS-D Breathing Effect - Detail (04/25/08) TRS-D Rhabdomyolysis - Detail (06/10/08) TRS-D TASER Electronic Control Device (ECD) Delivered Energy Basic Analogy Examples (12/27/11) TASER X26 ECD Demonstration Outline (03/01/13) TASER Handheld Conducted Electronic Weapons Law Enforcement Warnings (10/15/09) TASER Training Bulletin 15.0 Medical Research Update and Revised Warnings (03/01/06) Reason for June 28, 2005, TASER Training Bulletin, regarding multiple TASER electronic control device exposures alleged effects on respiration and p H levels warnings (02/01/09) TASER M26 Electrical Characteristics (02/06/09) TASER M26 Specifications Sheet (02/01/09) TASER X26 Electrical Characteristics (02/06/09) TASER X26 Specifications Sheet (02/12) Atlas of Conducted Electrical Weapon Wounds and Forensic Analysis. In only two cases did the evidence tend to confirm the weapon was either a cause of death or a significant contributing factor. The Defendants-Appellants do not challenge this conclusion on appeal, arguing only that no constitutional violation occurred. When Snauer was hit by the probes, he became temporarily paralyzed, and plunged head-first to the other side unable to break his fall. Paramedics had been summoned before the struggle ended; Michael was breathing and able to talk with the officers after the struggle; when Michael fell over and said that he could not breathe, the officers propped Michael back up and there is no indication that he continued to complain; when the paramedics arrived Michael was breathing, communicated, and had a pulse; the officers assisted the paramedics with placing Michael on the gurney and Michael was only on his stomach a brief period of time during this process; when Michael was observed in distress by Escareno, he informed the paramedics who examined Michael and said he was okay; and Escareno and Burger helped with CPR and driving to the hospital. Plaintiff admits she did not comply with Officer's commands to get off of the telephone. (02/20/07) Civil Liability for Use of Tasers, stunguns, and other electronic control devices--Part I: 4th Amendment claims for excessive force, 2007 (3) AELE Mo. - (01/01/05) 022 Conducted Energy Weapon (PDF pages 84-88).

(01/15/09) Bozeman W, II WH, Heck J, Graham D, Martin B, Winslow J., Safety and Injury Profile of Conducted Electrical Weapons Used by Law Enforcement Officer Against Criminal Suspects. Within the force modality framework most commonly available to police officers, the CEW was less injurious than either the baton or empty hand physical control. - Electronic Control Device State statutes – Eric Edwards [PDF]. (07/09) (Canada, Alberta) Standards and Audits Unit Law Enforcement Branch. (03/30/08) A Briefing Note on the State of Tasers in Canada: A Select Review of Medical and Policy Review Literature, by Steven Synyshyn, Prepared for: the Canadian Association of Police Boards."While exposure to CED is not risk-free, there is no conclusive medical evidence within the state of current research that indicates a high risk of serious injury or death from the direct effects of CED exposure. (03/01/06) Wisconsin Law Enforcement Standards Board, Tactical Skills Advisory Committee, Electronic Control Device (Taser®) Update. Final Report of the Miami-Dade County Grand Jury, Spring Term A. 2005, In the Circuit Court of the Eleventh Judicial Circuit of Florida in and for the County of Miami-Dade. Police Executive Research Forum, National Institute of Justice.Field experience with CED use indicates that exposure is safe in the vast majority of cases. E.2d 108, 2009 WL 2605742 (Ohio).) In a 4 day bench trial that started on April 21, 2008, TASER International, Inc. (02/06) Minneapolis (MN) Civilian Police Review Authority TASER Policy and Training Recommendations. “Overall, the study showed that use of CEDs is associated with a 70-percent reduction in the chances of an officer being injured compared to agencies that do not use CEDs.He was trained that the Springfield Police Department's policy on [ECDs] stated that they "shall not be used in situations where the suspect may fall from a significant height." As noted above, plaintiff's quibble over the adjective "significant" is overstated. The only crime Officer suspected Plaintiff of committing was a violation of the open container statute, a minor crime, particularly since Plaintiff was the passenger in the car. Holding: Federal court in Seattle found that only the first 3 of 5 electronic control device (ECD) discharges were objectively reasonable. (04/96) IACP National Law Enforcement Policy Center, ELECTRONIC RESTRAINT DEVICE: THE TASER® Model Policy. Including Recommendations for Immediate Implementation. Commission for Public Complaints Against Canadian Mounted Police.Any reasonable police officer would know from the training received in this case that tasing a suspect who is cresting a six to seven foot high fence would likely result in serious injury. Although there were tumblers at Plaintiff’s feet, any object could be used as a weapon and there is no allegation that Plaintiff made any indication to reach for the tumblers, dispose of the tumblers, or use them as a weapon. Each ECD use lasted 5 seconds, and all 5 ECD uses took place within an 85-second time period. CIV 06-129-P-S) (unpublished) (gathering cases in which district courts held use of TASER ECD was not entitled to qualified immunity and holding that use of ECD on unarmed, intoxicated motorist, who did not physically threaten officers or attempt to flee and who was surrounded by three officers, was not entitled to qualified immunity. (04/10) Electronic Control Weapons (ECW), Concepts and Issues Paper, IACP NLEPC. Report of the Standing Committee on Public Safety and National Security. (04/07/11) 2011 Electronic Control Weapon Guidelines, A joint project of Police Executive Research Forum and Community Oriented Policing Services, U. (08/03/10) Conducted Energy Devices Guidelines for Policy & Practice, Meeting Preparation Materials (for August 3, 2010 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, meeting), Police Executive Research Forum.

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This book will be an excellent resource for law enforcement professionals, attorneys, investigators, and criminal justice personnel. A.10 (Utah) November 3, 2010) - Officer's use of ECD on woman was objectively unreasonable, and therefore, officer was not entitled to qualified immunity in her § 1983 action alleging use of excessive force in violation of the Fourth Amendment, where officer had responded to a non-emergency request for help from woman's husband in finding her after a domestic dispute, officer was investigating a non-injurious assault, woman was heading towards her door when officer used ECD on her in probe mode, woman did not act aggressively towards officer or threaten him, she did not have any weapon, officer did not give her any warning, there was only a single bystander who was in his driveway next door, and woman was not fleeing or resisting arrest. Cavanaugh, whose feet were on the front steps of her home, went rigid, spun around, and struck her head on the concrete steps. He was trained that use of the [ECD] created the risk of secondary injuries to the subject caused by the subject's inability to catch himself or herself during falling. Officer asserts that he warned Plaintiff before using ECD on her (in drive-stun to her arm for 2-3 seconds), but asserts that even if, as Plaintiff asserts, he did not warn her, he is entitled to qualified immunity. (11/30/04) TASER Use and Deployment Policy, Vallejo (CA) Police Department.

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