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Where the total number of regnal years for a given ruler is not known, Egyptologists have identified two indicators to provide that total number: for the Old Kingdom, the number of cattle censuses; and for later periods, the celebration of a sed festival.
A number of Old Kingdom inscriptions allude to a periodic census of cattle, which experts at first believed took place every second year; thus records of as many as 24 cattle censuses indicate Sneferu had reigned 48 years.
The backbone of Egyptian chronology are the regnal years as recorded in Ancient Egyptian king lists.
Surviving king lists are either comprehensive but have significant gaps in their text (for example, the Turin King List), or are textually complete but fail to provide a complete list of rulers (for example, the Abydos King List), even for a short period of Egyptian history.
Regnal periods have to be pieced together from inscriptions, which will often give a date in the form of the regnal year of the ruling pharaoh, yet only provides a minimum length of that reign and may or may not include any coregencies with a predecessor or successor.A useful way to work around these gaps in knowledge is to find chronological synchronisms, which can lead to a precise date.Over the past decades, a number of these have been found, although they are of varying degrees of usefulness and reliability.I am a simple person, i hate lies,i love the sea with all it's activities i love fishing and swimming,i like walking long distances by the sea as i live in Alexandria,i like to sit in a cafe simply drinking something cold in summer or eating pizza & watching the sun sets,i like trees and plants as i have many in my garden i love to water the plants ..I have many friends we meet and talk and spend a good time .
In addition, some Egyptian dynasties probably overlapped, with different pharaohs ruling in different regions at the same time, rather than serially.