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Case in point, the emergence of large populations of Afro-Arabs in the Arab World and mulattoes in the New World historically came about in the context of the Arab and Transatlantic slave trades, respectively, which resulted in impregnation of black women.
These women were largely sex slaves (rather than wives) of non-black men (cf.
Anti-miscegenation laws have played a large role in defining racial identity and enforcing the racial hierarchy.
Only 12% of black women married outside of their race.
For Asians, the gender pattern goes in the opposite direction: Asian women are much more likely than Asian men to marry someone of a different race.
Although the anti-miscegenation laws have been revoked, the social stigma related to Black interracial marriages still exists in today's society although to a much lesser degree.
Research by Tucker and Mitchell-Kerman from 1990 has shown that Blacks intermarry far less than any other non-White group There is also a sharp gender imbalance to Black interracial marriages: In 2008, 22% of all black male newlyweds married interracially while only 9% of black female newlyweds married outside their race, making them one of the least likely of any race or gender to marry outside their race and the least likely to get married at all.
Since ethnic Mexicans were considered white by Texas officials and the U. government, such marriages were a violation of the state's anti-miscegenation laws.